Energy policies across Europe have been based upon a simplistic and beguiling narrative. They grew out of the consensus in the last decade that matured into the European Climate Change Package, adopted in 2008. The basic story was that fossil fuels were going to get scarcer, prices were going to rise, and hence it made perfect economic sense to switch to renewables rapidly. Any subsidies would be temporary, quickly rendered unnecessary by the rise in oil and gas prices.
This was the logic behind the energiewende in Germany, a giant industrial policy to give Germany and German companies competitive advantage. It was aped to a lesser degree in most other European countries, all were given hard targets in the renewables directive.