Renewable energy solutions are often hindered by the inconsistencies of power produced by wind, water and sunlight and the continuously fluctuating demand for energy.
New research by Mark Z Jacobson, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford University, and colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley, and Aalborg University in Denmark finds several solutions to making clean, renewable energy reliable enough to power at least 139 countries.
In their paper, published as a manuscript this week in Renewable Energy, the researchers propose three different methods of providing consistent power among all energy sectors — transportation; heating and cooling; industry; and agriculture, forestry and fishing — in 20 world regions encompassing 139 countries after all sectors have been converted to 100 per cent clean, renewable energy.
Jacobson and colleagues previously developed roadmaps for transitioning 139 countries to 100 per cent clean, renewable energy by 2050 with 80 per cent of that transition completed by 2030. The present study examines ways to keep the grid stable with these roadmaps.